As this paper outlines concepts associated with airborne pollutants and concentrated on particulate forms of airborne pollutants, we will not consider gasses although some forms of fumes and vapour are considered in some detail, as these can result in chemical reactions within the atmosphere, which manifest as particulates.
With the above in mind it is important to consider what has to be achieved before deciding on the method to be used to carry out the monitoring. Integral to this thinking, the following questions should be asked when embarking on a sampling programme:
How does the pollutant cause a problem?
What is the problem associated with this pollutant?
If the pollutant settle out will it be easier and more representative to measure the fall-out settlement or should the airborne load be determined?
If the airborne load is determined, can we accurately determine where and under what conditions it will settle out or precipitate or even whom it will affect?
Can a single means of monitoring be used or is there a necessity to employ a multiplicity of methods to determine the pollutant load or concentration?
Will the captured particulate fall-out within the area where monitoring is required and thus cause a problem or will it cause a problem while in suspension?From the above questions it should then be possible to determine if capture of the particulate must be achieved within the airflow or to wait for the particulate to settle out before capturing. To illustrate this important point further let us ask a further question:
Generally the answer to this question will tend to dictate how the particulate must be captured, enabling the best method to be selected.
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Federal register Part 1V – 40 CFR Parts 53 & 58
Revised requirements for Designation of Reference
and Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 and Ambient Air Quality Surveillance for Particulate Matter – Final Rule
EPA Revised Particulate Matter Standards – Fact sheets
Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter –
EPA 600/P – 95/001af
DustWatch fall-out dust monitoring, sampling and assessment procedure manual – DustWatch CC
ASTM D1739 – American Standard Test Method
Strategy for Landfill Designs in Arid Regions – Anwar Al-Yagout & Frank Townsend ASCE
Numerous routine reports & investigative reports